June 27, 2019
The justices - in a 5-4 decision with Chief Justice John Roberts joining the court’s four liberals in the majority - upheld part of a federal judge’s ruling barring the question in a victory for a group of states including New York and immigrant rights organizations that had challenged the plan.
U.S. Supreme Court blocks Trumps census citizenship question, for now
Opponents of the question have called it a Republican ploy to scare immigrants into not taking part in the population count.
The court ruled against the challengers on other claims, with the nine justices splitting in different ways.
Roberts, writing for the court’s majority, said that under a U.S. law called the Administrative Procedure Act, the federal government is required to give a reasoned explanation for its actions.
“Accepting contrived reasons would defeat the purpose of the enterprise,” Roberts wrote.
Roberts said that the explanation provided by the government was “more of a distraction.”
The ruling did not address litigation that is ongoing in lower courts over additional evidence challengers say show an illegal motive for adding the question, which the high court could yet weigh in on.
The Republican president’s administration had appealed to the Supreme Court after lower courts blocked the inclusion of the census question.
Opponents have said the question would instill fear in immigrant households that the information would be shared with law enforcement, deterring them from taking part.
The census, required by the U.S. Constitution, is used to allot seats in the U.S. House of Representatives and distribute some $800 billion in federal funds. The intent of the citizenship question, opponents said, is to manufacture a deliberate undercount of areas with high immigrant and Latino populations, costing Democratic-leaning regions seats in the House, benefiting Republicans and non-Hispanic whites.
The administration argued that adding a question requiring people taking part in the census to declare whether they are a citizen was needed to better enforce a voting rights law, a rationale that opponents called a pretext for a political motive.

SETBACK FOR TRUMP
The ruling marked the first major setback for Donald Trump in a ruling at the Supreme Court.
The Supreme Court, which includes two justices appointed by Trump, had handed Trump some major victories since he took office in 2017, in particular a June 2018 ruling upholding his travel ban targeting people from several Muslim-majority countries. The court in January also let Trump’s policy barring many transgender people from the U.S. military go into effect.
Manhattan-based U.S. District Judge Jesse Furman ruled on Jan. 15 that the Commerce Department’s decision to add the question violated a federal law called the Administrative Procedure Act. Federal judges in Maryland and California also have issued rulings to block the question’s inclusion, saying it would violate the Constitution’s mandate to enumerate the population every 10 years.
Furman said the evidence showed that Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross concealed his true motives for adding the question and that he and his aides had convinced the Justice Department to request a citizenship question.
Businesses also rely on census data to make critical strategic decisions, including where to invest capital. Citizenship has not been asked of all households since the 1950 census, featuring since then only on questionnaires sent to a smaller subset of the population.
The Census Bureau’s own experts estimated that households corresponding to 6.5 million people would not respond to the census if the citizenship question were asked.
While only U.S. citizens can vote, non-citizens comprise an estimated 7 percent of the population.
Evidence surfaced in May that the challengers said showed that the administration’s plan to add a citizenship question was intended to discriminate against racial minorities.
Documents created by Republican strategist Thomas Hofeller, who died last year, showed that he was instrumental behind the scenes in instigating the addition of the citizenship question. He was an expert in drawing electoral district boundaries that maximize Republican chances of winning congressional elections.
Hofeller concluded in a 2015 study that asking census respondents whether they are American citizens “would clearly be a disadvantage to the Democrats” and “advantageous to Republicans and Non-Hispanic Whites” in redrawing electoral districts based on census data.
Hofeller suggested the voting rights rationale in the newly disclosed documents.
The Trump administration called the newly surfaced evidence “conspiracy theory.”
Most people living in the United States will be asked to fill out the census, whether online or on paper, by March 2020.
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